Friday, April 13, 2007

在Blogger的任何位置加入網頁元素!

如需轉載本文請註明本文出處(daemoncat.blogspot.com)

Blogger預設只讓你在側欄(sidebar)與底欄(footer)加入新的網頁元素

但是只要小小的修改就可以讓標頭(header)與主欄(main)也可以加入新的網頁元素喔!


原本的樣子:


修改後的子:


方法如下:

先登入後,來到 範本-->修改html
建議每次修改前先備份: 下載完整模版


一、修改標頭欄(header)

1.按ctrl+f (關鍵字:id='header')找到下列兩行:
<b:section class='header' id='header' maxwidgets='1' showaddelement='no'>
<b:widget id='Header1' locked='true' title='月亮上的三腳貓(標頭)' type='Header'/>

2.把maxwidgets拿掉、showaddelement='yes'、locked='false'變成下面的樣子:
<b:section class='header' id='header' showaddelement='yes'>
<b:widget id='Header1' locked='false' title='月亮上的三腳貓(標頭)' type='Header'/>

說明:
maxwidgets:限制可以放幾個網頁元素。
showaddelement:是否顯示"加入網頁元素"
locked:是否鎖定各網頁元素(可不可以移動)


二、修改主欄(main)

1.按ctrl+f (關鍵字:id='main')找到下列兩行:
<b:section class='main' id='main' showaddelement='no'>
<b:widget id='Blog1' locked='true' title='blog 文章' type='Blog'>

2.修改showaddelement='yes'、locked='false'變成下面的樣子:
<b:section class='main' id='main' showaddelement='yes'>
<b:widget id='Blog1' locked='false' title='blog 文章' type='Blog'>


三、儲存範本後到 範本--> 網頁元素 去看看吧!

Thursday, April 12, 2007

LPI Exam 202 Detailed Objectives

Indicate the source of this article,when you make a copy.
如需轉載本文請註明本文出處(lpi-note.blogspot.com)

Reference:www.lpi.org
參考資料:LPI網站

Exam 202: Detailed Objectives

This is a required exam for LPI certification Level 2. It covers basic system administration skills that are common across all distributions of Linux.

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: These are the current 202 objectives, which are valid effective 2006-03-01. The 201 exams, which are delivered through test centres all over the world, will reflect these updated objectives for English in mid 2006 and all other languages by late 2006/early 2007. Candidates should be prepared to take exams based upon these objectives after 2Q2006.

Each objective is assigned a weighting value. The weights range roughly from 1 to 10 and indicate the relative importance of each objective. Objectives with higher weights will be covered in the exam with more questions.

Maintainer: Dimitrios "Taki" Bogiatzoules, Product Developer

Last modification: 2006-02-28



Topic 205: Networking Configuration

2.205.1 Basic networking configuration

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should be able to configure a network device to be able to connect to a local, wired or wireless, and a wide-area network. This objective includes being able to communicate between various subnets within a single network, configure dialup access, its authentication protocols and logging.

Key knowledge area(s):Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
Use and configuration of modems, ISDN interface cards and ethernet interfaces as dialup devices.
Authentication protocols such as PAP and CHAP.
Configuring wireless networks.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/sbin/route
/sbin/ifconfig
/bin/ip
/sbin/arp
/usr/sbin/arpwatch
/sbin/iwconfig
/sbin/wlanctl-ng
/sbin/wpa_supplicant
/etc/


2.205.2 Advanced Network Configuration and Troubleshooting

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure a network device to implement various network authentication schemes. This objective includes configuring a multi-homed network device, configuring a VPN client and resolving communication problems.

Key knowledge area(s):Utilities to manipulate routing tables
Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
Utilities to analyse the status of the network devices
Utilities to monitor and analyse the TCP/IP traffic
OpenVPN


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/sbin/route
/sbin/ifconfig
/bin/netstat
/bin/ping
/sbin/arp
/usr/sbin/tcpdump
/usr/sbin/lsof
/usr/bin/nc
/bin/ip
/etc/openvpn/*
openvpn


Topic 206 Mail & News

2.206.1 Configuring mailing lists

Weight: 1

Description: Install and maintain mailing lists. Monitor and resolve problems by viewing the logs.

Key knowledge area(s):Install, configure and manipulate mailing lists
Mailman configuration files, terms and utilities
Majordomo configuration files, terms and utilities
Ezmlm configuration files, terms and utilities


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:Not applicable


2.206.2 Using email servers

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to manage an email server, including the configuration of email aliases, email quotas and virtual email domains. This objective includes configuring internal email relays and monitoring email servers.

Key knowledge area(s):Configuration files for postfix, qmail, exim and sendmail
Basic knowledge of the SMTP protocol


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:Configuration files and commands for postfix, qmail, exim and sendmail
/etc/aliases
/etc/mail/*
/etc/postfix/*
/var/qmail/control/*
sendmail emulation layer commands


2.206.3 Managing Mail Traffic

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to implement client email management software to filter, sort and monitor incoming user email.

Key knowledge area(s):procmail configuration files, tools and utilities
Usage of procmail on both server and client side


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:~/.procmail
/etc/procmailrc
procmail



2.206.4 Serving news

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to install and configure news servers. This objective includes customising and monitoring served newsgroups.

Key knowledge area(s):INN configuration files, terms and utilities
Leafnode configuration files, terms and utilities


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:innd
fetnchnews


Topic 207: DNS

2.207.1 Basic DNS server configuration

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure BIND to function as a caching-only DNS server. This objective includes the ability to convert older BIND configuration files to newer format, managing a running server and configuring logging.

Key knowledge area(s):BIND 8.x and 9.x configuration files, terms and utilities
Defining the location of the BIND zone files in BIND configuration files
Reloading modified configuration and zone files


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/named.conf
/usr/sbin/ndc
/usr/sbin/rndc
/usr/sbin/named-bootconf
kill


2.207.2 Create and maintain DNS zones

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to create a zone file for a forward or reverse zone or root level server. This objective includes setting appropriate values for records, adding hosts in zones and adding zones to the DNS. A candidate should also be able to delegate zones to another DNS server.

Key knowledge area(s):BIND 8.x and 9.x configuration files, terms and utilities
Utilities to request information from the DNS server
Layout, content and file location of the BIND zone files
Various methods to add a new host in the zone files, inlcuding reverse zones


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:contents of /var/named/
zone file syntax
resource record formats
dig
nslookup
host


2.207.3 Securing a DNS server

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure a DNS server to run as a non-root user and run in a chroot jail. This objective includes secure exchange of data between DNS servers.

Key knowledge area(s):BIND 8.x and 9.x configuration files
Configuring BIND to run in a chroot jail
DNSSEC configuration files, tools and utilities
Split configuration of BIND using the forwarders statement


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:SysV init files or rc.local
/etc/named.conf
/etc/passwd
dnskeygen


Topic 208 Web Services

2.208.1 Implementing a web server

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to install and configure a web server. This objective includes monitoring the server's load and performance, restricting client user access, configuring support for scripting languages as modules and setting up client user authentication. Also included is configuring server options to restrict usage of resources.

Key knowledge area(s):Apache 1.x configuration files, terms and utilities
Apache 2.x configuration files, terms and utilities
Apache log files configuration and content
Access restriction methods and files
mod_perl and PHP configuration
Client user authentication files and utilities
Configuration of maximum requests, minimum and maximim servers and clients


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:access.log
.htaccess
httpd.conf
mod_auth
htpasswd
htgroup
apache2ctl
apachectl
httpd


2.208.2 Maintaining a web server

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure a web server to use virtual hosts, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and customise file access.

Key knowledge area(s):SSL (OpenSSL) configuration files, tools and utilities
SSL certificate handling
Apache 1.x and 2.x virtual host implementation (with and without dedicated IP addresses)
Using redirect statements in Apache's configuration files to customise file access


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/httpd/*
/etc/apache2/*
/etc/ssl/*
openssl


2.208.3 Implementing a proxy server

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to install and configure a proxy server, including access policies, authentication and resource usage.

Key knowledge area(s):Squid 2.x configuration files, terms and utilities
Access restriction methods
Client user authentication methods
Layout and content of ACL in the Squid configuration files


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:squid.conf
acl
http_access


Topic 210 Network Client Management

2.210.1 DHCP configuration

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure a DHCP server. This objective includes setting default and per client options, adding static hosts and BOOTP hosts. Also included is configuring a DHCP relay agent and maintaining the DHCP server.

Key knowledge area(s):DHCP configuration files, tterms and utilities
Subnet and dynamically-allocated range setup


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:dhcpd.conf
dhcpd.leases


2.210.2 NIS configuration

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to configure an NIS server. This objective includes configuring a system as an NIS client.

Key knowledge area(s):NIS configuration files, terms and utilities
Create NIS maps for major configuration files
Manipulate nsswitch.conf to configure the ability to search local files, DNS, NIS, etc.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:ypbind
ypcat
ypmatch
ypserv
yppasswd
yppoll
yppush
ypwhich
rpcinfo
nsswitch.conf
ypserv.conf
contents of /var/yp/*
netgroup
nicknames
securenets
Makefile


2.210.3 LDAP configuration

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to configure an LDAP server. This objective includes working with directory hierarchy, groups, hosts, services and adding other data to the hierarchy. Also included is importing and adding items, as well as adding and managing users.

Key knowledge area(s):LDAP configuration files, tools and utilities
Importing items from LDIF files
Change user passwords


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:slapd
slapd.conf


2.210.4 PAM authentication

Weight: 2

Description: The candidate should be able to configure PAM to support authentication using various available methods.

Key knowledge area(s):PAM configuration files, terms and utilities
passwd and shadow passwords
NIS
LADP


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/pam.d
pam.conf


Topic 212 System Security

2.212.2 Configuring a router

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure a system to perform network address translation (NAT, IP masquerading) and state its significance in protecting a network. This objective includes configuring port redirection, managing filter rules and averting attacks.

Key knowledge area(s):iptables configuration files, tools and utilities
ipchains configuration files, tools and utilities
Tools, commands and utilities to manage routing tables.
Private address ranges
Port redirection and IP forwarding
List and write filtering and rules that accept or block datagrams based on source or destination protocol, port and address
Save and reload filtering configurations
Manipulating the content of /proc/sys/net/ to respond to DoS attacks


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/proc/sys/net/ipv4
/etc/services
ipchains
iptables
routed
quagga


2.212.3 Securing FTP servers

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure an FTP server for anonymous downloads and uploads. This objective includes precautions to be taken if anonymous uploads are permitted and configuring user access.

Key knowledge area(s):Configuration files, tools and utilities for vsftpd, Pure-FTPd, wu-ftpd and ProFTPd
Layout and content of FTP access restriction files
Client user authentication methods
Usage of chroot to secure FTP


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:ftpaccess
ftpusers
ftpgroups
/etc/passwd



2.212.4 Secure shell (SSH)

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure an SSH daemon. This objective includes managing keys and configuring SSH for users. Candidates should also be able to forward an application protocol over SSH and manage the SSH login.

Key knowledge area(s):SSH (OpenSSH) configuration files, tools and utilities
Differences between SSH versions 1 and 2
Login restrictions for the superuser and the normal users
Managing and using server and client keys to login with and without password
Usage of XWindow and other application protocols through SSH tunnels
Configuration of ssh-agent
Usage of multiple connections from multiple hosts to guard against loss of connection to remote host following configuration changes


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:ssh
sshd
/etc/ssh/sshd_config
~/.ssh/identity.pub and identity
~/.ssh/authorized_keys
.shosts
.rhosts


2.212.5 TCP_wrappers

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to configure tcpwrappers to allow connections to specified servers only from certain hosts or subnets.

Key knowledge area(s):tcpwrappers configuration files, tools and utilities
(x)inetd configuration files, tools and utilities


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/xinetd.conf
/etc/xinetd.d/*
/etc/inetd.conf
tcpd
/etc/hosts.allow
/etc/hosts.deny



2.212.6 Security tasks

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to install and configure a secure authentication system, perform basic security auditing of source code, receive security alerts from various sources, audit servers for open email relays and anonymous FTP servers, install, configure and run intrusion detection systems and apply security patches and bugfixes.

Key knowledge area(s):Basic KERBEROS 5 configuration files, tools and utilities to ensure secure logins to a server
Tools and utilities to scan and test ports on a server
Locations and organisations that report security alerts as Bugtraq, CERT, CIAC or other sources
Tools and utilities to implement an intrusion detection system (IDS)


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:Tripwire
telnet
nmap
snort
nessus
PortSentry


Topic 214 Network Troubleshooting

2.214.7 Troubleshooting network issues

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to identify and correct common network setup issues, to include knowledge of locations for basic configuration files and commands.

Key knowledge area(s):Location and content of access restriction files as /etc/hosts
Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces
Utilities to manage routing tables
Utilities to list network states.
Utilities to gain information about the network configuration
Methods of information about the recognised and used hardware devices
System initialisation files and their contents (SysV init process)


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/sbin/ifconfig
/sbin/route
/bin/netstat
/etc/network || /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
System log files such as /var/log/syslog && /var/log/messages
/bin/ping
/etc/resolv.conf
/etc/hosts
/etc/hosts.allow && /etc/hosts.deny
/etc/hostname || /etc/HOSTNAME
/sbin/hostname
/usr/sbin/traceroute
/usr/bin/nslookup
/usr/bin/dig
/bin/dmesg
/usr/bin/host


LPI Exam 201 Detailed Objectives

Indicate the source of this article,when you make a copy.
如需轉載本文請註明本文出處(lpi-note.blogspot.com)

Reference:www.lpi.org
參考資料:LPI網站

Exam 201: Detailed Objectives

This is a required exam for LPI certification Level 2. It covers basic system administration skills that are common across all distributions of Linux.

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: These are the current 201 objectives, which are valid effective 2006-03-01. The 201 exams, which are delivered through test centres all over the world, will reflect these updated objectives for English in mid 2006 and all other languages by late 2006/early 2007. Candidates should be prepared to take exams based upon these objectives after 2Q2006.

Each objective is assigned a weighting value. The weights range roughly from 1 to 10 and indicate the relative importance of each objective. Objectives with higher weights will be covered in the exam with more questions.

Maintainer: Dimitrios "Taki" Bogiatzoules, Product Developer

Last modification: 2006-02-28



Topic 201: Linux Kernel

2.201.1 Kernel Components

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to utilise kernel components that are necessary to specific hardware, hardware drivers, system resources and requirements. This objective includes implementing different types of kernel images, identifying stable and development kernels and patches, as well as using kernel modules.

Key knowledge area(s):Kernel documentation (2.4 and 2.6)


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/usr/src/linux
/usr/src/linux/Documentation
zImage
bzImage


2.201.2 Compiling a kernel

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to properly configure a kernel to include or disable specific features of the Linux kernel as necessary. This objective includes compiling and recompiling the Linux kernel as needed, updating and noting changes in a new kernel, creating an initrd image and installing new kernels.

Key knowledge area(s):/usr/src/linux/
GRUB configuration files
Kernel make options (2.4 and 2.6)
LILO configuration files where applicable


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:mkinitrd
make
make options (config, xconfig, menuconfig, oldconfig, cloneconfig, prepare-all, mrproper zImage, bzImage, modules, modules_install)


2.201.3 Patching a kernel

Weight: 2

Description:Candidates should be able to properly patch a kernel to add support for new hardware. This objective also includes being able to properly remove kernel patches from already patched kernels.

Key knowledge area(s):Kernel Makefiles


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:patch
gzip
bzip2


2.201.4 Customising a kernel

Weight: 1
Description: Candidates should be able to customise a kernel for specific system requirements, by patching, compiling and editing configuration files as required. This objective includes being able to assess requirements for a kernel compile as well as build and configure kernel modules.

Key knowledge area(s):/usr/src/linux/
/proc/sys/kernel/
Module configuration files


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:patch
make
module tools
kerneld
kmod


Topic 202: System Startup

2.202.1 Customising system startup and boot processes

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to edit appropriate system startup scripts to customise standard system run levels and boot processes. This objective includes interacting with runlevels.

Key knowledge area(s):Linux Standard Base Specification (LSB)


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:insserv
chkconfig
startproc
checkproc
killproc
startpar
/etc/inittab
/etc/init.d/
/etc/rc.d/
/etc/insserv.conf
/etc/insserv.conf.d/


2.202.2 System recovery

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to properly manipulate a Linux system during both the boot process and during recovery mode. This objective includes using both the init utility and init-related kernel options.

Key knowledge area(s):inittab
GRUB
LILO where applicable


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:init
mount
fsck


Topic 203: Filesystem

2.203.1 Operating the Linux filesystem

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to properly configure and navigate the standard Linux filesystem. This objective includes configuring and mounting various filesystem types. Also included is manipulating filesystems to adjust for disk space requirements or device additions.

Key knowledge area(s):The concept of the fstab configuration
Tools and utilities for handling SWAP partitions and files


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/fstab
/etc/mtab
/proc/mounts
mount and umount
sync
swapon
swapoff


2.203.2 Maintaining a Linux filesystem

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to properly maintain a Linux filesystem using system utilities. This objective includes manipulating standard filesystems.

Key knowledge area(s):Tools and utilities to manipulate ext2 and ext3
Tools and utilities to manipulate reiserfs (V3 and V4)


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:fsck (fsck.ext2, fsck.reiserfs)
badblocks
mkfs (mkfs.ext2, mkfs.reiserfs)
dumpe2fs
debugfs, debugreiserfs
tune2fs, reiserfstune


2.203.3 Creating and configuring filesystem options

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure automount filesystems. This objective includes configuring automount for network and device filesystems. Also included is creating filesystems for devices such as CD-ROMs.

Key knowledge area(s):autofs configuration files
UDF and ISO9660 tools and utilities


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/auto.master
/etc/auto.[dir]
mkisofs
dd
mke2fs


Topic 204: Hardware

2.204.1 Configuring RAID

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure and implement software RAID. This objective includes using and configuring RAID 0, 1 and 5.

Key knowledge area(s):Software raid configurtation files and utilities


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/raidtab
mkraid
mdadm.conf
mdadm


2.204.2 Adding new hardware

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure internal and external devices for a system including new hard disks, dumb terminal devices, serial UPS devices, multi-port serial cards, and LCD panels.

Key knowledge area(s):X.org
XFree86
Module tools
Tools and utilities to list various hardware information (e.g. lsdev, lspci, etc.)
Tools and utilities to manipulate legacy interfaces (RS232, LPT, etc)
Tools and utilities to manipulate USB devices


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:modprobe
lsmod
lsdev
lspci
setserial
usbview
lsusb


2.204.3 Software and kernel configuration

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure kernel options to support various drives. This objective includes using LVM (Logical Volume Manager) to manage hard disk drives and partitions, as well as software tools to view & modify hard disk settings.

Key knowledge area(s):Tools and utilities to configure DMA for IDE devices including ATAPI and SATA
LVM tools and utilities
Tools and utilities to manipulate or analyse system resources (e.g. interrupts)


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/proc/interrupts
hdparm
tune2fs
sysctl


2.204.4 Configuring PCMCIA devices

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to configure a Linux installation to include support for mobile computer hardware extensions. This objective includes configuring those devices.

Key knowledge area(s):PCCard and PCMCIA
PCCard and PCMCIA configuration files, tools and utilities


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/pcmcia/
*.opts
cardctl
cardmgr


Topic 209: File and Service Sharing

2.209.1 Configuring a Samba server

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should be able to set up a Samba server for various clients. This objective includes setting up Samba for login clients and setting up the workgroup in which a server participates and defining shared directories and printers. Also covered is a configuring a Linux client to use a Samba server.

Key knowledge area(s):Samba 2 and 3 documentation
Samba configuration files
Samba tools and utilities
Mounting Samba shares on Linux
Samba daemons
WINS server functionality
Mapping Windows usernames to Linux usernames


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:smbd, nmbd
smbstatus, testparm, smbpasswd, nmblookup
smb.conf, lmhosts


2.209.2 Configuring an NFS server

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to export filesystems using NFS. This objective includes access restrictions, mounting an NFS filesystem on a client and securing NFS.

Key knowledge area(s):NFS configuration files
NFS tools and utilities
Access restrictions to certain hosts and/or subnets
Mount options on server and client
tcpwrappers


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/exports
exportfs
showmount
nfsstat


Topic 211: System Maintenance

2.211.1 System logging

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to configure the logging daemon to act as a central network log server. This objective also includes configuring the logging deamon to send log output to a central log server, logging remote connections, and automating log analysis.

Key knowledge area(s):syslog configuration files
syslog and syslog-ng
text manipulation tools and utilities such as grep, etc.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:syslog.conf
/etc/hosts
sysklogd


2.211.2 Packaging software

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to build a software package. This objective includes building or rebuilding both RPM and DEB packaged software.

Key knowledge area(s):RPM description, software and commands
DEB description, software and commands
SPEC file format
debian/rules file format


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:rpmbuild
The contents of /var/lib/rpm and /usr/lib/rpm/
/var/cache/debconf/
dpkg-deb
dpkg


2.211.3 Backup operations

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to create an offsite backup storage plan.

Key knowledge area(s):Backup strategies
Knowlegde about directories that have to be include in backups
Assets and drawbacks of tapes, CDR or other backup media


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/bin/sh
/bin/tar


Topic 213: System Customisation and Automation

2.213.1 Automating tasks using scripts

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to write simple scripts to automate tasks using different common scripting languages. Tasks for automation include checking processes, process execution, parsing logs, synchronising files across machines, monitoring files for changes, generating and sending e-mail alerts and notifying administrators when specified users log in or out.

Key knowledge area(s):Standard text manipulation software such as awk and sed
BASH
cron configuration files
at daemon usage
Remote copying software such as rsync and scp
Perl: basic commands


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:perl, bash, awk, sed
crontab
at


Topic 214: Troubleshooting

2.214.2 Creating recovery disks

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to create bootdisks for system entrance and recovery disks for system repair.

Key knowledge area(s):Filesystem configuration files
INIT configuration files
Any standard editor
Familiarity with the location and contents of the LDP Bootdisk-HOWTO
Tools to manipulate the MBR
Tools and utilities to copy and mount filesystems
GRUB
LILO
Loop devices
Making CD or USB storage devices bootable


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/fstab
/etc/inittab
/usr/sbin/rdev
/bin/cat
/bin/mount (includes -o loop switch)
/sbin/lilo
/bin/dd
/sbin/mke2fs
/usr/sbin/chroot


2.214.3 Identifying boot stages

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to determine, from bootup text, the 4 stages of the boot sequence and distinguish between each.


Key knowledge area(s):boot loader start and hand off to kernel
kernel loading
hardware initialisation and setup
daemon initialisation and setup


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:Not applicable.


2.214.4 Troubleshooting bootloaders

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to determine specific stage failures and corrective techniques.

Key knowledge area(s):LILO
GRUB
Know the different bootloader install locations on a hard disk or removable device
Overwriting standard bootloader options or using bootloader shells


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:The contents of /boot/ and /boot/grub/
/etc/lilo.conf
grub
grub-install
lilo



2.214.5 General troubleshooting

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to recognise and identify boot loader and kernel specific stages and utilise kernel boot messages to diagnose kernel errors. This objective includes being able to identify and correct common hardware issues and be able to determine if the problem is hardware or software.

Key knowledge area(s):/proc filesystem
Various system and daemon log files
Content of /, /boot, and /lib/modules
Screen output during bootup
Kernel syslog entries in system logs (if entry is able to be gained)
Tools and utilities to analyse information about the used hardware
Tools and utilities to trace software


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:dmesg
/sbin/lspci
/usr/bin/lsdev
/sbin/lsmod
/sbin/modprobe
/sbin/insmod
/bin/uname
strace
strings
ltrace
lsof


2.214.6 Troubleshooting system resources

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to identify, diagnose and repair local system issues when using software from the command line.

Key knowledge area(s):Core system variables
The contents of:
/etc/profile && /etc/profile.d/
/etc/init.d/
/etc/rc.*
/etc/sysctl.conf
/etc/bashrc
/etc/ld.so.conf
or other appropriate global shell configuration files
Any standard editor
Standard tools, utilites and commands to manipulate the above files and variables


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/bin/ln
/bin/rm
/sbin/ldconfig
/sbin/sysctl


2.214.8 Troubleshooting environment configurations

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to identify common local system and user environment configuration issues and common repair techniques.

Key knowledge area(s):Core system variables
init configuration files
init start process
cron configuration files
Login process
User-password storage files
Determine user group associations
SHELL configuration files of bash and csh.
Analysing which processes or daemons are running


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/inittab
/etc/rc.local
/etc/rc.boot
/var/spool/cron/crontabs/
The default shell configuration file(s) in /etc/
/etc/login.defs
/etc/syslog.conf
/etc/passwd
/etc/shadow
/etc/group
/sbin/init
/usr/sbin/cron
/usr/bin/crontab


LPI Exam 102 Detailed Objectives

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Reference:www.lpi.org
參考資料:LPI網站

Exam 102: Detailed Objectives

This is a required exam for LPI certification Level 1. It covers basic system administration skills that are common across all distributions of Linux.

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: These are the current 101 objectives, which are valid effective 2006-01-01. The 101 exams which are delivered through test centrers all over the world, will reflect these updated objectives for English in early 2006 and all other languages by late 2006/early 2007. Candidates should be prepared to take exams based upon these objectives after 1Q2006.

Each objective is assigned a weighting value. The weights range roughly from 1 to 10 and indicate the relative importance of each objective. Objectives with higher weights will be covered in the exam with more questions.

Maintainer: Dimitrios "Taki" Bogiatzoules, Product Developer

Last modification: 2005-12-31



Topic 105: Kernel

1.105.1 Manage/Query kernel and kernel modules at runtime

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to manage and/or query a kernel and kernel loadable modules.

Key knowledge area(s):Use command-line utilities to get information about the currently running kernel and kernel modules.
Manually load and unload kernel modules.
Determine when modules can be unloaded.
Determine what parameters a module accepts.
Configure the system to load modules by names other than their file name.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/lib/modules/kernel-version/modules.dep
/etc/modules.conf
/etc/modprobe.conf
depmod
insmod
lsmod
rmmod
modinfo
modprobe
uname


1.105.2 Reconfigure, build and install a custom kernel and kernel modules

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to customize, build and install a kernel and kernel loadable modules from source.

Key knowledge area(s):Customize the current kernel configuration.
Build a new kernel and appropriate kernel modules.
Install a new kernel and any modules.
Ensure that the boot manager can locate the new kernel and associated files.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/usr/src/linux/*
/usr/src/linux/.config
/lib/modules/kernel-version/*
/boot/*
make
make targets: all, config, menuconfig, xconfig, gconfig oldconfig, modules, install, modules_install, depmod, rpm-pkg, binrpm-pkg, deb-pkg


Topic 106: Topic 106 Boot, Initialization, Shutdown and Runlevels

1.106.1 Boot the system

Weight: 3
Description: Candidates should be able to guide the system through the booting process.

Key knowledge area(s):Give commands to the boot loader and options to the kernel at boot time.
Check boot events in the log files.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/var/log/messages
/etc/modules.conf
/etc/modprobe.conf
dmesg
LILO
GRUB


1.106.2 Change runlevels and shutdown or reboot system

Weight: 3
Description: Candidates should be able to manage the runlevel of the system. This objective includes changing to single user mode, shutdown or rebooting the system. Candidates should be able to alert users before switching runlevel and properly terminate processes. This objective also includes setting the default runlevel.

Key knowledge area(s):Set the default runlevel.
Change between run levels including single user mode.
Shutdown and reboot from the command line.
Alert users before switching runlevels or other major system event.
Properly terminate processes.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/inittab
shutdown
init


Topic 107: Printing

1.107.2 Manage printers and print queues

Weight: 1
Description: Candidates should be able to manage print queues and user print jobs.

Key knowledge area(s):Configure and monitor a print server.
Manage user print queues.
Troubleshoot general printing problems.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:CUPS configuration files, tools and utilities
/etc/printcap
lpc
lpq
lprm
lp


1.107.3 Print files

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to manage print queues and manipulate print jobs.

Key knowledge area(s):Add and remove jobs from configured printer queues.
Convert text files to postscript for printing.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:CUPS configuration files, tools and utilities
a2ps
lpr
lpq


1.107.4 Install and configure local and remote printers

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to install and configure local and remote printers.

Key knowledge area(s):Install a printer daemon.
Install and configure a print filter.
Make local and remote printers accessible for a Linux system, including postscript, non-postscript and Samba printers.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:CUPS configuration files, tools and utilities
/etc/printcap
/var/spool/cups/
/var/spool/lpd/*/
lpd


Topic 108: Documentation

1.108.1 Use and manage local system documentation

Weight: 4
Description: Candidates should be able to use and administer the man facility and the material in /usr/share/doc/.

Key knowledge area(s):Find relevant man pages.
Search man page sections.
Find commands and man pages related to them.
Configure access to man sources and the man system.
Prepare man pages for printouts.
Use the system documentation stored in /usr/share/doc/ and determine what documentation to keep in /usr/share/doc/.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:MANPATH man
apropos
whatis


1.108.2 Find Linux documentation on the Internet

Weight: 3
Description: Candidates should be able to find and use Linux documentation on the internet.

Key knowledge area(s):This objective includes using Linux documentation at sources such as the Linux Documentation Project (LDP), vendor and third-party websites, newsgroups, newsgroup archives and mailing lists.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:Not applicable


1.108.5 Notify users on system-related issues

Weight: 1
Description: Candidates should be able to notify the users about current issues related to the system.

Key knowledge area(s):Automate communication with users through logon messages.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/issue
/etc/issue.net
/etc/motd


Topic 109: Shells, Scripting, Programming and Compiling

1.109.1 Customize and use the shell environment

Weight: 5
Description: Candidates should be able to customize shell environments to meet users' needs.

Key knowledge area(s):Set environment variables (e.g. PATH) at login or when spawning a new shell.
Write BASH functions for frequently used sequences of commands.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:Internal BASH functions and commands
~/.bash_profile
~/.bash_login
~/.profile
~/.bashrc
~/.bash_logout
~/.inputrc
function
export
env
set
lists
seq
unset


1.109.2 Customize or write simple scripts

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to customize existing scripts, or write simple new BASH scripts.

Key knowledge area(s):Use standard sh syntax (loops, tests).
Use command substitution.
Test return values for success or failure or other information provided by a command.
Perform conditional mailing to the superuser.
Correctly select the script interpreter through the shebang (#!) line.
Manage the location, ownership, execution and suid-rights of scripts.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:for
while
test
chmod


Topic 111: Administrative Tasks

1.111.1 Manage users and group accounts and related system files

Weight: 4
Description: Candidates should be able to add, remove, suspend and change user accounts.

Key knowledge area(s):Add, modify and remove users and groups.
Manage user/group info in password/group databases.
Correctly manage shadow password/group databases using the appropriate tools.
Create and manage special purpose and limited accounts.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/passwd
/etc/shadow
/etc/group
/etc/gshadow
chage
gpasswd
groupadd
groupdel
groupmod
passwd
useradd
userdel
usermod


1.111.2 Tune the user environment and system environment variables

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to modify global and user profiles.

Key knowledge area(s):Set environment variables.
Maintain skeleton directories for new user accounts.
Set command search path with the proper directory.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/profile
/etc/skel
env
export
set
unset



1.111.3 Configure and use system log files to meet administrative and security needs

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure and manage system logs.

Key knowledge area(s):Manage the type and level of information logged.
Manually scan log files for notable activity.
Monitor log files.
Automatically rotate and archive log files.
Track down problems noted in log files.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/syslog.conf
/var/log/*
logrotate
tail -f


1.111.4 Automate system administration tasks by scheduling jobs to run in the future

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to use cron or anacron to run jobs at regular intervals and to use at to run jobs at a specific time.

Key knowledge area(s):Manage cron and at jobs.
Configure user access to cron and at services.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/anacrontab
/etc/at.deny
/etc/at.allow
/etc/crontab
/etc/cron.allow
/etc/cron.deny
/var/spool/cron/*
at
atq
atrm
crontab


1.111.5 Maintain an effective data backup strategy

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to plan a backup strategy and backup filesystems automatically to various media.

Key knowledge area(s):Dump a raw device to a file or vice versa.
Perform partial and manual backups.
Verify the integrity of backup files.
Partially or fully restore backups.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:cpio
dd
dump
restore
tar


1.111.6 Maintain system time

Weight: 4
Description: Candidates should be able to properly maintain the system time and synchronize the clock via NTP.

Key knowledge area(s):Set the system date and time.
Set the BIOS clock to the correct time in UTC.
Configure the correct timezone.
Configure NTP including correcting for clock drift.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/usr/share/zoneinfo
/etc/timezone
/etc/localtime
/etc/ntp.conf
/etc/ntp.drift
date
hwclock
ntpd
ntpdate


Topic 112: Networking Fundamentals

1.112.1 Fundamentals of TCP/IP

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should demonstrate a proper understanding of network fundamentals.

Key knowledge area(s):Demonstrate an understanding of IP-addresses including but not limited to:
Network masks, for example: determine the network part and the broadcast address for a host based on its address and subnet mask in "dotted quad" or abbreviated notation or determine the network address, broadcast address and netmask when given an IP-address and number of bits in the address that are used to identify the host.
Demonstrate an understanding of the network classes and classless subnets (CIDR) and the reserved addresses for private network use.
Understand the function and application of a default route.
Understand basic internet protocols (IP, ICMP, TCP, UDP) and the more common TCP and UDP ports (20, 21, 23, 25, 53, 80, 110, 119, 139, 143, 161).
Basic knowledge about the differences between IPV4 and IPV6.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/services
ftp
telnet
host
ping
dig
traceroute
whois



1.112.3 TCP/IP configuration and troubleshooting

Weight: 7

Description: Candidates should be able to view, change and verify configuration settings and operational status for various network interfaces.

Key knowledge area(s):Manually and automatically configure network interfaces and routing tables to include adding, starting, stopping, restarting, deleting or reconfiguring network interfaces.
Change, view, or configure the routing table and correct an improperly set default route manually.
Configure a DHCP client.
Basic TCP/IP host configuration.
Debug problems associated with the network configuration.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/HOSTNAME or /etc/hostname
/etc/hosts
/etc/networks
/etc/host.conf
/etc/resolv.conf
/etc/nsswitch.conf
ifconfig
ifup & ifdown
route
dhcpcd
dhclient
pump
host
hostname
domainname
dnsdomainname
netstat
ping
traceroute
tcpdump
Network scripts run during system initialization.


1.112.4 Configure Linux as a PPP client

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should understand the basics of the PPP protocol and be able to configure and use PPP for outbound connections.

Key knowledge area(s):Define the chat sequence to connect (given a login example) and the setup commands to be run automatically when a PPP connection is made.
Initialize and terminate a PPP connection, with a modem, ISDN or ADSL with the appropriate scripts.
Set PPP to automatically reconnect if disconnected.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/ppp/options.*
/etc/ppp/peers/*
/etc/wvdial.conf
/etc/ppp/ip-up
/etc/ppp/ip-down
wvdial
ppp


Topic 113: Networking Services

1.113.1 Configure and manage xinetd, inetd and related services

Weight: 4

Description: Configure and manage xinetd, inetd and related services.

Key knowledge area(s):Configure which services are available through (x)inetd.
Manually start, stop and restart internet services.
Configure basic network services including ssh and ftp.
Set a service to run as another user instead of the default in (x)inetd configuration.
Basic knowledge of tcpwrappers to allow or deny services on a host-by-host basis.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/hosts.allow
/etc/hosts.deny
/etc/services
/etc/xinetd.conf
/etc/xinetd.d/
/etc/xinetd.log
/etc/inetd.conf


1.113.2 Operate and perform basic configuration of Mail Tranfer Agent (MTA)

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to operate and perform basic configuration of MTA. Advanced custom configurations not included.

Key knowledge area(s):Modify simple parameters in MTA configuration files.
Create e-mail aliases.
Manage the e-mail queue.
Start and stop MTA.
Configure e-mail forwarding.
Check for and close an open relay on the mailserver.
Perform basic troubleshooting of MTA.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:Configuration files, documentation and commands for: postfix, qmail, exim and sendmail
/etc/mail/*
~/.forward
sendmail emulation layer commands
newaliases



1.113.3 Operate and perform basic configuration of Apache

Weight: 4
Description: Candidates should be able to operate and perform basic configuration of Apache. Advanced custom configurations not included.

Key knowledge area(s):Modify simple parameters in Apache configuration files.
Start and stop httpd and restart after modification to configuration.
Arrange for automatic starting of httpd upon boot.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/apache2/
httpd.conf
apache2ctl
apachectl
httpd


1.113.4 Properly manage the NFS and SAMBA daemons

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should know how to manage the NFS, smb and nmb daemons.

Key knowledge area(s):Mount remote filesystems using NFS.
Configure NFS for exporting local filesystems.
Start, stop and restart the NFS server.
Install and configure Samba using the included GUI tools (swat) or direct edit of the /etc/smb.conf file (Note: this deliberately excludes advanced NT domain issues but includes simple sharing of home directories and printers, as well as correctly setting the nmbd as a WINS client).


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/exports
/etc/fstab
/etc/smb.conf
mount
umount


1.113.5 Setup and configure basic DNS services

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to configure basic DNS services.

Key knowledge area(s):Configure hostname lookups and troubleshoot problems with local caching-only name server.
Demonstrate an understanding of the domain registration and DNS translation process.
Understanding configuration files for BIND8 and BIND9.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/hosts
/etc/resolv.conf
/etc/nsswitch.conf
/etc/named.conf
named


1.113.7 Set up secure shell (OpenSSH)

Weight: 4

Description: The candidate should be able to obtain and configure OpenSSH.

Key knowledge area(s):Perform basic OpenSSH installation and troubleshooting.
Configure sshd to start at system boot.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/hosts.allow
/etc/hosts.deny
/etc/nologin
/etc/ssh/sshd_config
/etc/ssh_known_hosts
/etc/sshrc
sshd
ssh-keygen


Topic 114: Security

1.114.1 Perform security administration tasks

Weight: 4
Description: Candidates should know how to review system configuration to ensure host security in accordance with local security policies.

Key knowledge area(s):Configure tcpwrappers.
Audit a system to find files with the suid/sgid bit set.
Verify packages.
Set or change user passwords and password aging information.
Update binaries as recommended by CERT, BUGTRAQ and/or distribution's security alerts.
Demonstrate basic knowledge of iptables.
Being able to use nmap and netstat to discover open ports on a system.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/proc/net/ip_*
find
iptables
passwd
socket
nmap
netstat



1.114.2 Setup host security

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should know how to set up a basic level of host security.

Key knowledge area(s):Configure syslog with an eye to security.
Set up and manage shadow passwords.
Set up a e-mail alias for root's e-mail.
Turn off network services not in use.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/xinetd.d/*
/etc/xinetd.conf
/etc/inet.d/*
/etc/inetd.conf
/etc/nologin
/etc/passwd
/etc/shadow
/etc/syslog.conf



1.114.3 Setup user level security

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to configure user level security. Tasks include limits on user logins, processes and memory usage.

Key knowledge area(s):Set up limits on user logins, processes and memory usage.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:quota
usermod
ulimit


Tuesday, April 10, 2007

LPI Exam 101 Detailed Objectives

Indicate the source of this article,when you make a copy.
如需轉載本文請註明本文出處(lpi-note.blogspot.com)

Reference:www.lpi.org
參考資料:LPI網站

Exam 101: Detailed Objectives

This is a required exam for LPI certification Level 1. It covers basic system administration skills that are common across all distributions of Linux.

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: These are the current 101 objectives, which are valid effective 2006-01-01. The 101 exams which are delivered through test centrers all over the world, will reflect these updated objectives for English in early 2006 and all other languages by late 2006/early 2007. Candidates should be prepared to take exams based upon these objectives after 1Q2006.

Each objective is assigned a weighting value. The weights range roughly from 1 to 10 and indicate the relative importance of each objective. Objectives with higher weights will be covered in the exam with more questions.

Maintainer: Dimitrios "Taki" Bogiatzoules, Product Developer

Last modification: 2005-12-31


Topic 101: Hardware & Architecture

1.101.1 Configure Fundamental BIOS Settings

Weight: 1
Description: Candidates should be able to configure fundamental system hardware by making the correct settings in the system BIOS in x86 based hardware.

Key knowledge area(s):Enable and disable integrated peripherals.
Configure systems with or without external peripherals such as keyboards.
Correctly set IRQ, DMA and I/O addresses for all BIOS administrated ports and settings for error handling.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/proc/ioports
/proc/interrupts
/proc/dma
/proc/pci


1.101.3 Configure Modem and Sound cards

Weight: 1
Description: Candidates should be able to configure modem and soundcard settings.

Key knowledge area(s):Ensure devices meet compatibility requirements (particularly that the modem is not an unsupported win-modem).
Verify that correct resources are used by the cards.
Configure modem for outbound dial-up.
Set serial port speeds.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/proc/dma
/proc/interrupts
/proc/ioports
/proc/pci
lspci
lsusb


1.101.4 Setup non-IDE Devices

Weight: 1
Description: Candidates should be able to configure non-IDE devices as SCSI, SATA, USB drives using the special BIOS as well as the necessary Linux tools.

Key knowledge area(s):Differentiate between the various types of non-IDE devices.
Manipulate BIOS to detect used and available SCSI IDs.
Set the correct hardware ID for different devices, especially the boot device.
Configure BIOS settings to control the boot sequence when both non-IDE and IDE devices are present .


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:SCSI ID
/proc/scsi/
scsi_info


1.101.5 Setup different PC expansion cards

Weight: 3
Description: Candidates should be able to configure various cards for the various expansion slots.

Key knowledge area(s):Know the differences between coldplug and hotplug devices.
Determine hardware recources for devices.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:The appropriate subdirectories of /proc
hotplug configuration files, terms and utilities
lspci
lsusb


1.101.6 Configure Communication Devices

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to install and configure different internal and external communication devices like modems, ISDN adapters and DSL modems.

Key knowledge area(s):Verification of compatibility requirements (such as the modem is not a winmodem).
Correctly set IRQs, DMAs and I/O Ports of the cards to avoid conflicts between devices.
Load and configure suitable device drivers.
Set serial port speed.
Setup modem for outbound PPP connections.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/proc/dma
/proc/interrupts
/proc/ioports
setserial


1.101.7 Configure USB devices

Weight: 1
Description: Candidates should be able to activate USB support, use and configure different USB devices.

Key knowledge area(s):Identify and load the correct USB driver module.
Demonstrate knowledge of the USB layer architecture and the modules used in the different layers.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:lspci
xHCI modules
lsusb
/etc/usbmgr/
usbmodules
/etc/hotplug
udev configuration files, utilities and documentation


Topic 102: Linux Installation & Package Management
1.102.1 Design hard disk layout

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should be able to design a disk partitioning scheme for a Linux system.

Key knowledge area(s):Allocate filesystems and swap space to separate partitions or disks.
Tailor the design to the intended use of the system.
Ensure the /boot partition conforms to the BIOS requirements for booting.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/ (root) filesystem
/var filesystem
/home filesystem
swap space
mount points
partitions


1.102.2 Install a boot manager

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to select, install and configure a boot manager.

Key knowledge area(s):Providing alternative boot locations and backup boot options (for example, using a boot floppy or a bootable CDROM).
Install and configure a boot loader such as GRUB or LILO.
Interact with the boot loader.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/boot/grub/grub.conf
/boot/grub/menu.lst
grub-install
MBR
superblock
first stage boot loader
/etc/lilo.conf
lilo


1.102.3 Make and install programs from source

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should be able to build and install an executable program from source. This objective includes being able to unpack a file of sources. Candidates should be able to make simple customizations to the Makefile, for example changing paths or adding extra include directories, either in the raw Makefile or using the configure tools.

Key knowledge area(s):Unpack a file of sources using typical compression utilities.
Make simple customizations to Makefile such as changing paths or adding extra include directories.
Apply parameters to a configure script.
Know where sourses are stored by default.
Compile a RPM oder DPKG software package using sources.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:RPM and DPKG commands
/usr/src/
gunzip
gzip
bzip2
tar
configure
make


1.102.4 Manage shared libraries

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to determine the shared libraries that executable programs depend on and install them when necessary.

Key knowledge area(s):Identify shared libraries.
Identify the typical locations of system libraries.
Load shared libraries.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:ldd
ldconfig
/etc/ld.so.conf
LD_LIBRARY_PATH


1.102.5 Use Debian package management

Weight: 8

Description: Candidates should be able to perform package management using the Debian package tools.

Key knowledge area(s):Install, upgrade and uninstall Debian binary packages.
Find packages containing specific files or libraries which may or may not be installed.
Obtain package information like version, content, dependencies, package integrity and installation status (whether or not the package is installed).


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:unpack
configure
/etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg
/var/lib/dpkg/*
/etc/apt/apt.conf
/etc/apt/sources.list
dpkg
dselect
dpkg-reconfigure
apt-get
alien


1.102.6 Use Red Hat Package Manager (RPM)

Weight: 8

Description: Candidates should be able to perform package management using RPM based tools.

Key knowledge area(s):Install, re-install, upgrade and remove RPM packages.
Obtain information on RPM packages such as version, status, dependencies, integrity and signatures.
Determine what files a package provides, as well as find which package a specific file comes from.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/rpmrc
/usr/lib/rpm/*
rpm
grep



Topic: 103 GNU & Unix Commands
1.103.1 Work on the command line

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should be able to interact with shells and commands using the command line. The objective assumes the bash shell.

Key knowledge area(s):Use single shell commands and one line command sequences to perform basic tasks on the command line.
Use and modify the shell environment including defining, referencing and exporting environment variables.
Use and edit command history.
Invoke commands inside and outside the defined path.
Use commands recursively through a directory tree.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:.
bash
echo
env
exec
export
pwd
set
unset
~/.bash_history
~/.profile


1.103.2 Process text streams using filters

Weight: 6

Description: Candidates should should be able to apply filters to text streams.

Key knowledge area(s):Send text files and output streams through text utility filters to modify the output using standard UNIX commands found in the GNU textutils package.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:cat
cut
expand
fmt
head
hexdump
join
nl
paste
pr
sed
sort
split
tac
tail
tr
unexpand
uniq
wc



1.103.3 Perform basic file management

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to use the basic Linux commands to manage files and directories.

Key knowledge area(s):Copy, move and remove files and directories individually.
Copy multiple files and directories recursively.
Remove files and directories recursively.
Use simple and advanced wildcard specifications in commands.
Using find to locate and act on files based on type, size, or time.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:cp
find
mkdir
mv
ls
rm
rmdir
touch
file globbing



1.103.4 Use streams, pipes and redirects

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should be able to redirect streams and connect them in order to efficiently process textual data. Tasks include redirecting standard input, standard output and standard error, piping the output of one command to the input of another command, using the output of one command as arguments to another command and sending output to both stdout and a file.

Key knowledge area(s):Redirecting standard input, standard output and standard error.
Pipe the output of one command to the input of another command.
Use the output of one command as arguments to another command.
Send output to both stdout and a file.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:tee
xargs
<
<<
>
>>
|
` ` (back ticks)



1.103.5 Create, monitor and kill processes

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should be able to perform basic process management.

Key knowledge area(s):Run jobs in the foreground and background.
Start a process that will run without being associated to a terminal.
Signal a program to continue running after logout.
Monitor active processes.
Select and sort processes for display.
Send signals to processes.
Kill processes including processes that did not terminate correctly after an X session has closed


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:&
bg
fg
jobs
kill
nohup
ps
top
killall


1.103.6 Modify process execution priorities

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should should be able to manage process execution priorities.

Key knowledge area(s):Know the default priority of a job that is created.
Run a program with higher or lower priority than the default..
Change the priority of a running process.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:nice
ps
renice
top


1.103.7 Search text files using regular expressions

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to manipulate files and text data using regular expressions. This objective includes creating simple regular expressions containing several notational elements. It also includes using regular expression tools to perform searches through a filesystem or file content.

Key knowledge area(s):Create simple regular expressions containing several notational elements.
Use regular expression tools to perform searches through a filesystem or file content.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:grep
sed



1.103.8 Perform basic file editing operations using vi

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to edit text files using vi. This objective includes vi navigation, basic vi modes, inserting, editing, deleting, copying and finding text.

Key knowledge area(s):Navigate a document using vi.
Use basic vi modes (Command, Insert, Replace).
Insert, edit, delete, copy and find text.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:vi
/, ?
h,j,k,l
G, H, L
i, c, d, dd, p, o, a
ZZ, :w!, :q!, :e!
:!



Topic 104: Devices, Linux Filesystems, Filesystem Hierarchy Standard
1.104.1 Create partitions and filesystems

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure disk partitions and then create filesystems on media such as hard disks. This includes the handling of swap partitions.

Key knowledge area(s):Use various mkfs commands to set up partitions and create various filesystems, including ext2, ext3, reiserfs, vfat and xfs.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:fdisk
mkfs
mkswap


1.104.2 Maintain the integrity of filesystems

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to maintain a standard filesystem, as well as the extra data associated with a journaling filesystem.

Key knowledge area(s):Verify the integrity of filesystems.
Monitor free space and inodes.
Repair simple filesystem problems.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:du
df
fsck
e2fsck
mke2fs
debugfs
dumpe2fs
tune2fs


1.104.3 Control mounting and unmounting filesystems

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure the mounting of a filesystem.

Key knowledge area(s):Manually mount and unmount filesystems.
Configure filesystem mounting on bootup.
Configure user mountable removeable filesystems such as tape drives, floppies and CDROMs.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/fstab
mount
umount


1.104.4 Managing disk quota

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to manage disk quotas for users.

Key knowledge area(s):Set up a disk quota for a filesystem.
Edit, check and generate user quota reports.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:quota
edquota
repquota
quotaon


1.104.5 Use file permissions to control access to files

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should be able to control file access through the proper use of permissions.

Key knowledge area(s):Manage access permissions on regular and special files as well as directories.
Use access modes such as suid, sgid and the sticky bit to maintain security.
Use the group field to grant file access to workgroups.
Basic knowledge of ACL.
Know how to change the default file creation mode of the shell.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:chmod
umask
chattr (where applicable)


1.104.6 Manage file ownership

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to control user and group ownership of files. This objective includes the ability to change the user and group owner of a file as well as the default group owner for new files.

Key knowledge area(s):Manage access permissions on regular and special files as well as directories.
Use the group field to grant file access to workgroups.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:chmod
chown
chgrp


1.104.7 Create and change hard and symbolic links

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to create and manage hard and symbolic links to a file.

Key knowledge area(s):Create links.
Identify hard and/or softlinks.
Copying versus linking files.
Use links to support system administration tasks.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:ln


1.104.8 Find system files and place files in the correct location

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should be thouroughly familiar with the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS), including typical file locations and directory classifications.

Key knowledge area(s):Understand the correct locations of files under the FHS.
Find files and commands on a Linux system.
Know the location and propose of impotant file and directories as defind in the FHS.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:find
locate
slocate
updatedb
whereis
which
/etc/updatedb.conf



Topic 110: The X Window System
1.110.1 Install & Configure X11

Weight: 5
Description: Candidates should be able to install and configure X and an X font server.

Key knowledge area(s):Verify that the video card and monitor are supported by an X server.
Customize and tune X for the videocard and monitor.
Install and configure an X font server.
Install fonts.
Manually edit the X Window configuration file.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:xorgcfg
xorgconfig
/etc/X11/xorg.conf XF86Setup
xf86config
xvidtune
/etc/X11/XF86Config
.Xresources


1.110.2 Setup a display manager

Weight: 3
Description: Candidates should be able setup and customize a display manager. This objective covers the display managers XDM (X Display Manger), GDM (Gnome Display Manager) and KDM (KDE Display Manager).

Key knowledge area(s):Turn the display manager on or off.
Change the display manager greeting.
Change default color depth for the display manager.
Configure display managers for use by X-stations.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/inittab
/etc/X11/xdm/*
/etc/X11/kdm/*
/etc/X11/gdm/*


1.110.4 Install & Customize a Window Manager Environment

Weight: 5
Description: Candidates should be able to customize a system-wide desktop environment and/or window manager.

Key knowledge area(s):Demonstrate an understanding of customization procedures for window manager menus and/or desktop panel menus.
Select and configuring the desired x-terminal (xterm, rxvt, aterm etc.).
Verify and resolve library dependency issues for X applications.
Export the X-display to a client workstation.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:.xinitrc
.Xdefaults
xhost
DISPLAY environment variable


Monday, April 09, 2007

LPI Level 3 考試介紹

Indicate the source of this article,when you make a copy.
如需轉載本文請註明本文出處(lpi-note.blogspot.com)

Reference:www.lpi.org、google translation
參考資料:LPI網站、Google翻譯

Senior Level Linux Professional (LPIC-3 “Core” and LPI Specialty)

Status: “Core” and LPI 302 (Mixed Environment) Specialty available January 2007

Pre-Requisites: you must have an active LPIC-2 certification to receive LPIC-3 certification, but the LPIC-2 and LPIC-3 exams may be taken in any order

Requirements: Core--passing the 301 exam. Specialty--passing the 301 exam and any one of the LPI 302 - 306 exams to receive the respective specialty certification

Overview of Tasks: to pass LPIC-3 “Core” someone should:
Have several years experience with installing and maintaining Linux on a number of computers for various purposes
Have integration experience with diverse technologies and operating systems
Have professional experience as, or training for, an enterprise level Linux professional. (Including having experience as a part of another role)
Know advanced and enterprise levels of Linux administration including installation, management, security, troubleshooting and maintenance
Be able to use open source tools to measure capacity planning and troubleshoot resource problems
Have professional experience using LDAP to integrate with Unix services and Windows services, including Samba, PAM, email, Active Directory
Be able to plan, architecture, design, build and implement a full environment using Samba and LDAP as well as measure the capacity planning and security of the services
Be able create scripts in Bash or Perl or has knowledge of at least one system programming language (such as C)


Overview of Tasks: to pass LPI 302 (Mixed Environment) Specialty someone should:
Have necessary skills and experience as outlined in LPIC-3 “Core” exam
Have professional experience using Samba to integrate file and print services with Windows, including user management, domain control, security and performance tuning
Be able to plan, architecture, design, build and implement a complete multiuser environment using Samba


LPI 高級認證(LPIC Level 3) (核心科目加上LPI專科)

目前狀態:核心科目 LPI 301 與 專科 LPI 302(整合環境)已於2007.01提供考試
專科方面另有303(安全) 304(高可用度與虛擬化)
305(網站與內部網路) 306(郵件與訊息平台) 還沒推出~


考試限制:必須擁有有效的LPIC Level 2認證文件,才會收到LPIC-3證照,但LPIC-2與LPIC-3的考試順序不要求。

意思大概是這樣:
可以先考LPIC-3的科目,但不會發給你LPIC-3證照(因為沒LPIC-2的證照)
等到你通過LPIC-2考試時才會發給你LPIC-3的證照(一次拿到兩個等級?)

很搞笑的人大概可以反向考試LPIC-3先考,再考LPIC-2,最後考LPIC-1
這樣考完LPIC-1後就可以一次收到三張證照了:P
我想大概沒有人會這麼做吧!

考試費用:301(核心科目) 210 USD ; 302(專科:整合環境) 150 USD 共約11800 NTD
費用方面301有兩種價錢 在VUE是210 USD 在Prometric則是250 USD

認證要求:通過LPI 301 核心科目 並加選一門專業科目302 303 304 305 306。

任務概灠:要通過核心科目301考試的人大致需俱備下列能力:
對於不同目的與不同主機的Linux安裝和管理已有多年經驗。
對於不同技術與不同作業系統的操作有綜合的經驗。
具有身為企業級Linux專業人員或者培訓企業級Linux專業人員的經驗。
(包括具有作為另一角色的經驗)
明瞭Linux的專業進階管理,包含:Linux的安裝、管理、安全、故障排除與維護。
能使用開放原始碼工具來做系統規劃的可能並排除資源問題。
對於使用LDAP以整合Linux與Windows服務,包含Samba, PAM, email, Active Directory...等有專業的經驗。
能夠計劃、架構、設計、建立與執行一個使用LDAP與Samba的完全環境以及系統規劃與服務安全。
能夠建立Bash scripts 、perl scripts或者熟悉一種系統程式語言(如C語言)。


任務概灠:要通過專業科目302(整合環境)考試的人大致需俱備下列能力:
對於核心科目301所概述的能力有相當的技術與經驗 。
對於使用Samba整合Windows的檔案與列印服務有專業經驗,包含:使用者管理、網域控制、安全與系統調校。
能夠計劃、架構、設計、建立與執行一個使用Samba的多使用者並完全的環境。