Thursday, April 12, 2007

LPI Exam 201 Detailed Objectives

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Exam 201: Detailed Objectives

This is a required exam for LPI certification Level 2. It covers basic system administration skills that are common across all distributions of Linux.

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: These are the current 201 objectives, which are valid effective 2006-03-01. The 201 exams, which are delivered through test centres all over the world, will reflect these updated objectives for English in mid 2006 and all other languages by late 2006/early 2007. Candidates should be prepared to take exams based upon these objectives after 2Q2006.

Each objective is assigned a weighting value. The weights range roughly from 1 to 10 and indicate the relative importance of each objective. Objectives with higher weights will be covered in the exam with more questions.

Maintainer: Dimitrios "Taki" Bogiatzoules, Product Developer

Last modification: 2006-02-28



Topic 201: Linux Kernel

2.201.1 Kernel Components

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to utilise kernel components that are necessary to specific hardware, hardware drivers, system resources and requirements. This objective includes implementing different types of kernel images, identifying stable and development kernels and patches, as well as using kernel modules.

Key knowledge area(s):Kernel documentation (2.4 and 2.6)


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/usr/src/linux
/usr/src/linux/Documentation
zImage
bzImage


2.201.2 Compiling a kernel

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to properly configure a kernel to include or disable specific features of the Linux kernel as necessary. This objective includes compiling and recompiling the Linux kernel as needed, updating and noting changes in a new kernel, creating an initrd image and installing new kernels.

Key knowledge area(s):/usr/src/linux/
GRUB configuration files
Kernel make options (2.4 and 2.6)
LILO configuration files where applicable


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:mkinitrd
make
make options (config, xconfig, menuconfig, oldconfig, cloneconfig, prepare-all, mrproper zImage, bzImage, modules, modules_install)


2.201.3 Patching a kernel

Weight: 2

Description:Candidates should be able to properly patch a kernel to add support for new hardware. This objective also includes being able to properly remove kernel patches from already patched kernels.

Key knowledge area(s):Kernel Makefiles


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:patch
gzip
bzip2


2.201.4 Customising a kernel

Weight: 1
Description: Candidates should be able to customise a kernel for specific system requirements, by patching, compiling and editing configuration files as required. This objective includes being able to assess requirements for a kernel compile as well as build and configure kernel modules.

Key knowledge area(s):/usr/src/linux/
/proc/sys/kernel/
Module configuration files


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:patch
make
module tools
kerneld
kmod


Topic 202: System Startup

2.202.1 Customising system startup and boot processes

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to edit appropriate system startup scripts to customise standard system run levels and boot processes. This objective includes interacting with runlevels.

Key knowledge area(s):Linux Standard Base Specification (LSB)


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:insserv
chkconfig
startproc
checkproc
killproc
startpar
/etc/inittab
/etc/init.d/
/etc/rc.d/
/etc/insserv.conf
/etc/insserv.conf.d/


2.202.2 System recovery

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to properly manipulate a Linux system during both the boot process and during recovery mode. This objective includes using both the init utility and init-related kernel options.

Key knowledge area(s):inittab
GRUB
LILO where applicable


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:init
mount
fsck


Topic 203: Filesystem

2.203.1 Operating the Linux filesystem

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to properly configure and navigate the standard Linux filesystem. This objective includes configuring and mounting various filesystem types. Also included is manipulating filesystems to adjust for disk space requirements or device additions.

Key knowledge area(s):The concept of the fstab configuration
Tools and utilities for handling SWAP partitions and files


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/fstab
/etc/mtab
/proc/mounts
mount and umount
sync
swapon
swapoff


2.203.2 Maintaining a Linux filesystem

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to properly maintain a Linux filesystem using system utilities. This objective includes manipulating standard filesystems.

Key knowledge area(s):Tools and utilities to manipulate ext2 and ext3
Tools and utilities to manipulate reiserfs (V3 and V4)


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:fsck (fsck.ext2, fsck.reiserfs)
badblocks
mkfs (mkfs.ext2, mkfs.reiserfs)
dumpe2fs
debugfs, debugreiserfs
tune2fs, reiserfstune


2.203.3 Creating and configuring filesystem options

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure automount filesystems. This objective includes configuring automount for network and device filesystems. Also included is creating filesystems for devices such as CD-ROMs.

Key knowledge area(s):autofs configuration files
UDF and ISO9660 tools and utilities


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/auto.master
/etc/auto.[dir]
mkisofs
dd
mke2fs


Topic 204: Hardware

2.204.1 Configuring RAID

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure and implement software RAID. This objective includes using and configuring RAID 0, 1 and 5.

Key knowledge area(s):Software raid configurtation files and utilities


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/raidtab
mkraid
mdadm.conf
mdadm


2.204.2 Adding new hardware

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure internal and external devices for a system including new hard disks, dumb terminal devices, serial UPS devices, multi-port serial cards, and LCD panels.

Key knowledge area(s):X.org
XFree86
Module tools
Tools and utilities to list various hardware information (e.g. lsdev, lspci, etc.)
Tools and utilities to manipulate legacy interfaces (RS232, LPT, etc)
Tools and utilities to manipulate USB devices


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:modprobe
lsmod
lsdev
lspci
setserial
usbview
lsusb


2.204.3 Software and kernel configuration

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure kernel options to support various drives. This objective includes using LVM (Logical Volume Manager) to manage hard disk drives and partitions, as well as software tools to view & modify hard disk settings.

Key knowledge area(s):Tools and utilities to configure DMA for IDE devices including ATAPI and SATA
LVM tools and utilities
Tools and utilities to manipulate or analyse system resources (e.g. interrupts)


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/proc/interrupts
hdparm
tune2fs
sysctl


2.204.4 Configuring PCMCIA devices

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to configure a Linux installation to include support for mobile computer hardware extensions. This objective includes configuring those devices.

Key knowledge area(s):PCCard and PCMCIA
PCCard and PCMCIA configuration files, tools and utilities


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/pcmcia/
*.opts
cardctl
cardmgr


Topic 209: File and Service Sharing

2.209.1 Configuring a Samba server

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should be able to set up a Samba server for various clients. This objective includes setting up Samba for login clients and setting up the workgroup in which a server participates and defining shared directories and printers. Also covered is a configuring a Linux client to use a Samba server.

Key knowledge area(s):Samba 2 and 3 documentation
Samba configuration files
Samba tools and utilities
Mounting Samba shares on Linux
Samba daemons
WINS server functionality
Mapping Windows usernames to Linux usernames


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:smbd, nmbd
smbstatus, testparm, smbpasswd, nmblookup
smb.conf, lmhosts


2.209.2 Configuring an NFS server

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to export filesystems using NFS. This objective includes access restrictions, mounting an NFS filesystem on a client and securing NFS.

Key knowledge area(s):NFS configuration files
NFS tools and utilities
Access restrictions to certain hosts and/or subnets
Mount options on server and client
tcpwrappers


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/exports
exportfs
showmount
nfsstat


Topic 211: System Maintenance

2.211.1 System logging

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to configure the logging daemon to act as a central network log server. This objective also includes configuring the logging deamon to send log output to a central log server, logging remote connections, and automating log analysis.

Key knowledge area(s):syslog configuration files
syslog and syslog-ng
text manipulation tools and utilities such as grep, etc.


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:syslog.conf
/etc/hosts
sysklogd


2.211.2 Packaging software

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to build a software package. This objective includes building or rebuilding both RPM and DEB packaged software.

Key knowledge area(s):RPM description, software and commands
DEB description, software and commands
SPEC file format
debian/rules file format


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:rpmbuild
The contents of /var/lib/rpm and /usr/lib/rpm/
/var/cache/debconf/
dpkg-deb
dpkg


2.211.3 Backup operations

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to create an offsite backup storage plan.

Key knowledge area(s):Backup strategies
Knowlegde about directories that have to be include in backups
Assets and drawbacks of tapes, CDR or other backup media


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/bin/sh
/bin/tar


Topic 213: System Customisation and Automation

2.213.1 Automating tasks using scripts

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to write simple scripts to automate tasks using different common scripting languages. Tasks for automation include checking processes, process execution, parsing logs, synchronising files across machines, monitoring files for changes, generating and sending e-mail alerts and notifying administrators when specified users log in or out.

Key knowledge area(s):Standard text manipulation software such as awk and sed
BASH
cron configuration files
at daemon usage
Remote copying software such as rsync and scp
Perl: basic commands


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:perl, bash, awk, sed
crontab
at


Topic 214: Troubleshooting

2.214.2 Creating recovery disks

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to create bootdisks for system entrance and recovery disks for system repair.

Key knowledge area(s):Filesystem configuration files
INIT configuration files
Any standard editor
Familiarity with the location and contents of the LDP Bootdisk-HOWTO
Tools to manipulate the MBR
Tools and utilities to copy and mount filesystems
GRUB
LILO
Loop devices
Making CD or USB storage devices bootable


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/fstab
/etc/inittab
/usr/sbin/rdev
/bin/cat
/bin/mount (includes -o loop switch)
/sbin/lilo
/bin/dd
/sbin/mke2fs
/usr/sbin/chroot


2.214.3 Identifying boot stages

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to determine, from bootup text, the 4 stages of the boot sequence and distinguish between each.


Key knowledge area(s):boot loader start and hand off to kernel
kernel loading
hardware initialisation and setup
daemon initialisation and setup


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:Not applicable.


2.214.4 Troubleshooting bootloaders

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to determine specific stage failures and corrective techniques.

Key knowledge area(s):LILO
GRUB
Know the different bootloader install locations on a hard disk or removable device
Overwriting standard bootloader options or using bootloader shells


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:The contents of /boot/ and /boot/grub/
/etc/lilo.conf
grub
grub-install
lilo



2.214.5 General troubleshooting

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to recognise and identify boot loader and kernel specific stages and utilise kernel boot messages to diagnose kernel errors. This objective includes being able to identify and correct common hardware issues and be able to determine if the problem is hardware or software.

Key knowledge area(s):/proc filesystem
Various system and daemon log files
Content of /, /boot, and /lib/modules
Screen output during bootup
Kernel syslog entries in system logs (if entry is able to be gained)
Tools and utilities to analyse information about the used hardware
Tools and utilities to trace software


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:dmesg
/sbin/lspci
/usr/bin/lsdev
/sbin/lsmod
/sbin/modprobe
/sbin/insmod
/bin/uname
strace
strings
ltrace
lsof


2.214.6 Troubleshooting system resources

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to identify, diagnose and repair local system issues when using software from the command line.

Key knowledge area(s):Core system variables
The contents of:
/etc/profile && /etc/profile.d/
/etc/init.d/
/etc/rc.*
/etc/sysctl.conf
/etc/bashrc
/etc/ld.so.conf
or other appropriate global shell configuration files
Any standard editor
Standard tools, utilites and commands to manipulate the above files and variables


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/bin/ln
/bin/rm
/sbin/ldconfig
/sbin/sysctl


2.214.8 Troubleshooting environment configurations

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to identify common local system and user environment configuration issues and common repair techniques.

Key knowledge area(s):Core system variables
init configuration files
init start process
cron configuration files
Login process
User-password storage files
Determine user group associations
SHELL configuration files of bash and csh.
Analysing which processes or daemons are running


The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:/etc/inittab
/etc/rc.local
/etc/rc.boot
/var/spool/cron/crontabs/
The default shell configuration file(s) in /etc/
/etc/login.defs
/etc/syslog.conf
/etc/passwd
/etc/shadow
/etc/group
/sbin/init
/usr/sbin/cron
/usr/bin/crontab


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